Grover Norquist

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Grover Norquist - NRA Board Member
Founder of Americans for Tax Reform, Board Member of the Center for the National Interest (formerly known as the Nixon Center), former Board Member of American Conservative Union (CPAC)

Lawrence O’Donnell, host of “The Last Word” on MSNBC, has described Grover Norquist as, “the most powerful man in America who does not sleep in the White House” because of his ability to control Republican Party politics. Norquist, who was born in 1956 and grew up in Weston, Massachusetts, has been politically active from a young age. While a teenager, he volunteered for Richard Nixon’s 1968 presidential campaign before attending Harvard University. Since graduating from Harvard, Norquist has served in various roles as a small government advocate, although he has spent time on other issues, including working alongside fellow NRA board member Oliver North in aiding the Contra rebels.

His political beliefs were fundamentally defined by his declaration that his “goal is to cut government in half in twenty-five years, to get it down to the size where we can drown it in the bathtub.” Norquist also co-authored the Republican Party’s 1994 “Contract with America” with then-Minority Whip Newt Gingrich. Horace Cooper, counsel to then-GOP Majority Leader Dick Armey, called Norquist “our field marshal.” Norquist is widely credited with securing the Republican nomination for George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential elections.

Americans for Tax Reform (ATR), the organization Norquist founded in 1985, has been used as a clearinghouse for conservative ideas. It publishes the “Taxpayer Protection Pledge,” which calls on lawmakers to swear to never vote for any legislation that would raises taxes, no matter how modestly. The pledge—which counted over 95% of Republican House and Senate members as signatories in the 112th Congress—is considered “a sacred covenant for virtually anyone wishing to run as a Republican” by the New York Times. U.S. Senator Tom Coburn (R-OK) said that Norquist “threaten[s] all these guys here for the first time by saying he’ll send mailers, press releases and make it known to their constituents that they aren’t conservative” if they refuse to sign the pledge. ATR has a number of “special projects,” including the Alliance for Worker Freedom (AWF), an anti-labor group. While Norquist now refuses to disclose who funds ATF, in the past the organization has received money from the Koch Brothers, Phillip Morris, Pfizer and other corporate interests.

Norquist and his pledge played a prominent role in the 2011 debt ceiling crisis, with many commentators accusing him of preventing a bipartisan deal to resolve the crisis. Chis Cillizza of the Washington Post called Norquist “the most important person in the debt ceiling fight.” In July 2011, Republican signatories to the pledge met with Norquist and “begged” him to release them from their obligation in order to resolve the ongoing debt ceiling crisis. After the debt ceiling crisis was resolved, former Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY), co-chair of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, called Norquist “a good guy with a very bad idea.” “Grover Norquist should be examined into,” suggested Simpson. “Where does he get his money? ... Who is he slave to? ... How does he terrify people?”

Finally, Norquist is well known for chairing the Wednesday meetings, a weekly off-the-record, invitation-only meeting of GOP and
conservative operatives (including NRA operatives), lobbyists, and reporters. During the Bush presidency, attendance at the meeting numbered in the hundreds.

Photograph by Gage Skidmore

Controversial Actions and Statements

Controversial Actions and Statements:

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Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In an interview with conservative activist Bob Price filmed during the NRA’s annual convention on May 3-5, 2013, Norquist referred to efforts to strengthen gun laws in the wake of the mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, stating,
“How many people are these Leftists willing to kill—kill—with policies that for decades we’ve known are counterproductive? And that’s pretty gruesome. That’s pretty cold. Those guys are letting kids die, knowingly. This is not a mistake. This is not, you know, like they haven’t read the books, ‘More Guns Less Crime.’ It’s not like they don’t know the statistics, they do know the statistics. They don’t care. They don’t care.” “More Gun, Less Crime” is a book written by Fox News commentator John Lott, whose research has been discredited by the National Academy of Sciences. Norquist also said of the President: “
If you’re Obama, and you’re out there exploiting these murders, for political purposes, you really have to step back. If you believe for a second that these laws he wants to pass would reduce crime, which they wouldn’t, he should have done something in 2009 and 2010 where he had super-majorities of Democrats in the House and Senate. I mean not only he didn’t do it, he didn’t even try. He doesn’t care. He’s just using the issue for politics. He didn’t care in 2009. He didn’t care in 2010. He doesn’t care now. And he also in the back of his mind knows that it has nothing to do with reducing crime and everything to do with increasing government control.” (GOP Ties)

Republican Party (GOP) |
2013/05/25

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a July 21, 2012 interview with the Hill, Norquist addressed calls by President Barack Obama to restore tax rates for the top 1% of American earners to the levels they were at prior to the administration of President George W. Bush. Norquist stated, “Last time Republicans won the House [in the 2010 elections] and [were] a little strengthened in the Senate and Obama folded completely. We’re going to be stronger this time than after last time; our hostages are the 20 Democrats up in ’14. We’ll send them either piece by piece or one at a time over to the White House to negotiate.”

Lobbying Activity | Republican Party (GOP) |
2012/07/21

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Republican Party (GOP) |
2012/07

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a June 13, 2012 interview on C-SPAN, Norquist responded to former Florida governor Jeb Bush’s comment at a June 1, 2012 House Budget Committee hearing that that he hadn't signed Norquist’s “Taxpayer Protection Pledge” because he wasn't one to “outsource your principles and convictions to people.” Norquist’s pledge calls for elected officials to "oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rate for individuals and business; and to oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing the tax rate.” Norquist responded to Bush’s comments by saying, “When Jeb Bush comes in from out of town like some yokel off the bus and gets hurled into the middle of this and starts quoting Democratic senators who are lying, it puts him in an awkward position.” Norquist also addressed Bush’s June 11, 2012 comment that former President Ronald Reagan and his father, former President George H. W. Bush, would have a “http://www.nationaljournal.com/politics/norquist-describes-jeb-bush-as-a-yokel-off-the-bus--20120613hard time” finding a place in the current Republican Party. Norquist stated, “That's the meme, the story line, the narrative that Obama is trying to drive … Today, the modern Republican Party is the party that Reagan created.”

Republican Party (GOP) |
2012/06/13

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a May 19, 2012 interview with The Hill, Norquist commented on legislation designed to penalize Americans who renounce their citizenship in order to evade taxes, comparing it to a departure tax the Nazis imposed on Jews seeking to flee Germany before World War II. Norquist stated, “I think [the legislation’s sponsor, Democratic Senator Chuck] Schumer can probably find the legislation to do this. It existed in Germany in the 1930s and Rhodesia in the ’70s and in South Africa as well. He probably just plagiarized it and translated it from the original German.” Senator Schumer is Jewish. Norquist remarked that the communist East German government after World War II implemented a similar plan as well, stating, “The East Germans had the position that if you wanted to leave the country you had to pay them back for all the wonderful Communist education they gave you K through 12. Schumer’s effort has a really distinguished history.”

Republican Party (GOP) | Religion
2012/05/19

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a May 8, 2012 speech before the Economic Club of Annapolis, Norquist called President Barack Obama a “European-style socialist” and a Democratic-controlled government the “road to serfdom.”

Conspiracy Theory | Republican Party (GOP) |
2012/05/08

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

During a February 2012 speech at the annual Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), Norquist told the crowd, “Three years ago, a new crew came into Washington: [President Barack] Obama, [Senator Majority Leader Harry] Reid, [Former House Speaker Nancy] Pelosi. And they had a different vision. Their vision of the road to serfdom … Their plan was to turn us irrevocably into something between France and Greece and, on a bad day, Chicago … The left is not made up of friends and allies. It is made up by competing parasites.” He also stated, “All we have to do is replace Obama. ... We are not auditioning for ‘fearless leader.’ We don't need a president to tell us in what direction to go. We know what direction to go. We want the [U.S. Representative Paul] Ryan budget. ... We just need a president to sign this stuff. We don't need someone to think it up or design it. The leadership now for the modern conservative movement for the next 20 years will be coming out of the House and the Senate. Pick a Republican with enough working digits to handle a pen to become president of the United States. This is a change for Republicans: The House and Senate doing the work with the president signing bills. His job is to be captain of the team, to sign the legislation that has already been prepared." Ryan’s budget plan, “The Path to Prosperity,” would add $3.127 trillion to the deficit during the decade spanning 2013 to 2022, according to a table on page 88 of the plan. In its March 2012 projections, the Congressional Budget Office, a nonpartisan agency, estimated that if “current laws generally remain unchanged,” the federal government would incur deficits totaling $2.887 trillion from 2013 to 2022 under Ryan’s budget plan.

Republican Party (GOP) |
2012/02

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

During a February 2012 appearance on The Daily Show Norquist stated that there was no scenario under which he would advocate for any tax increase. Norquist went on to claim that he came up with the idea for his “Taxpayer Protection Pledge” —which calls on lawmakers to swear to never vote for any legislation that would raises taxes—in 1968 when he was 12 years old, stating, “At 12, basically the thought was this: If one of the parties would brand itself as the party that wouldn’t raise taxes, that I thought would be a way for the Republican party to succeed.”

Republican Party (GOP) |
2012-02-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a January 26, 2012 interview with National Journal, Norquist was asked about the prospect of President Barack Obama winning a second term. Referring to tax cuts passed under the presidential administration of George W. Bush, which disproportionately benefit the wealthy, Norquist said, “Obama can sit there and let all the tax [cuts] lapse, and then the Republicans will have enough votes in the Senate in 2014 to impeach.”

Republican Party (GOP) | Poverty
2012-0-1-26

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a November 9, 2011 article in Rolling Stone, David Stockman, President Ronald Reagan’s budget director from 1981 to 1985, described Norquist as a “fiscal terrorist” for his role in the debt ceiling crisis of 2011. Norquist was able to veto any resolution to the crisis that raised the marginal tax rate because nearly every Republican member of Congress was a signatory to his Americans for Tax Reform organization’s pledge to never raise taxes. Former Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY), co-chair of the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, also criticized Norquist, calling him “a good guy with a very bad idea" who “should be examined into.” Simpson went on to ask, “Where does he get his money? ... Who is he slave to? ... How does he terrify people?” Paul O’Neill, who served as Treasury Secretary in the administration of Republican George W. Bush, also commented on the debt ceiling debacle, stating, “Congress was willing to cause severe economic damage to the entire population simply because they were slaves to an idiot's idea of how the world works.”

Lobbying Activity | Republican Party (GOP) | Poverty
2011-11-09

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In November 2011, Norquist told Rolling StoneIt’s a different Republican Party now. The modern Republican Party” would no sooner recognize a politician who advocated for tax increases than the “Democratic Party would recognize [segregation proponent] George Wallace.”

Republican Party (GOP) | Race
2011-11-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Reacting to President Barack Obama’s call for the wealthiest Americans to “pay their fair share” of taxes, Norquist compared Obama’s economic policies to former Soviet Union dictator Joseph Stalin by tweeting, “ Obamas [sic] ‘new’ strategy to divide America: Get the Kulaks.” The Kulaks, a group of relatively affluent peasants who owned land, were the “class enemy” of the poorer peasants under Stalin’s totalitarian regime. Beginning in 1930, Stalin called for the elimination of Kulaks, endorsing methods including execution and deportation to unpopulated areas of Siberia. MSNBC host Chris Matthews called Norquist’s tweet, “Another far right attempt to frame the president as some type of foreigner who doesn’t really know America.”

Conspiracy Theory | Poverty
2011-09-20

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2011, Norquist lobbied the U.S. State Department to approve the Keystone XL project, an extension to the controversial Keystone Pipeline that brings oil from Canada into the United States. The Natural Resources Defense Council has said the Keystone XL extension would “lock the United States into a dependence on hard-to-extract oil and generate a massive expansion of the destructive tar sands oil operations in Canada. In addition to the damage that would be caused by the increased tar sands extraction, the pipeline threatens to pollute freshwater supplies in America’s agricultural heartland and increase emissions in already-polluted communities of the Gulf Coast.”

Lobbying Activity | The Environment
2011-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2011, Norquist’s Americans for Tax Reform organization lobbied on a number of issues before Congress. Among the many conservative bills supported by Norquist’s organization were:

Lobbying Activity | Republican Party (GOP) | The Environment | Freedom of Speech | Health Care | Women’s Rights
2011-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a 2011 article in Rolling Stone, Norquist was quoted as saying that he is “not focused on the [federal government] deficit. The metric that matters is keeping spending down.”

Poverty
2011

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Commenting on the fiscal crisis of 2008 that occurred at the end of the presidency of George W. Bush, former Republican Senator Lincoln Chafee said, “The wreckage was left by Dick Cheney, Grover Norquist and the gang. This was their doing.”

Republican Party (GOP) | Poverty
2008-09-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2008, Norquist described then-Senator Barack Obama as “John Kerry with a tan.”

Race
2008-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2007 and 2008, the Alliance for Worker Freedom (AWF), a special project of Norquist’s Americans for Tax Reform
organization, awarded U.S. Rep. Michelle Bachmann (R-MN) the "Guardian of Worker Freedom" award for “voting in favor of workers [sic] rights and freedoms.” As of 2008, Rep. Bachmann's lifetime voting rating with the AFL-CIO was 8% out of 100%.

Labor
2008-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

When disgraced lobbyist Jack Abramoff was convicted of mail fraud and conspiracy in 2006, it was revealed in an investigative report released by the Senate Indian Affairs Committee that Norquist used his tax-exempt Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) organization to help Abramoff funnel money from his clients to conservative causes (ATR kept a small cut of the funds). The Senate Finance Committee reported that, in doing so, ATR “appear[ed] to have perpetrated a fraud on other taxpayers” by “profit-seeking and private benefit behavior inconsistent with their tax-exempt status. And by virtue of the tax benefits, other taxpayers implicitly subsidized this behavior.” Additionally, clients of Abramoff were also directed to give Norquist’s organization money. In an e-mail to colleagues, Abramoff wrote, “I spoke this evening with Grover. He said that, if [the Choctaw Indian tribe] want the taxpayer movement, including him, involved on this issue and anything else which will come up over the course of the year or so, they need to become a major player with ATR. He recommended that they make a $50,000 contribution to ATR.” According to Mark Salter, a top aide to Senator John McCain (R-AZ), “By his own admission, Grover couldn’t be any closer to Abramoff if they moved to Massachusetts and got married.”

Lobbying Activity | Political Corruption |
2006-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2006, the Associated Press reported that Norquist—who visited the White House 97 times between 2001 and 2006—helped arrange meetings for clients of corrupt lobbyist Jack Abramoff with officials in the administration of George W. Bush. At the same time, Norquist was soliciting donations from these clients for his group Americans for Tax Reform. When the Bush administration tried to seal records of visitors to the White House, Democratic National Committee spokeswoman Karen Finney said, “By trying to extend a special privilege typically reserved for U.S. government employees to protect their Abramoff cronies like Grover Norquist…the Bush administration showed just how willing they are to manipulate the law to hide the truth and protect their political interests.”

Lobbying Activity | Political Corruption | Republican Party (GOP) |
2006-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Prior to the downfall of corrupt lobbyist Jack Abramoff, Norquist promoted the Northern Mariana Islands as a positive example of free enterprise. A 1998 Department of Interior report, however, documented widespread human rights abuses associated with a booming sweatshop industry on the islands (clothing made on the islands carries a “Made in USA” label). The report found that women and children immigrant workers were subjected to forced abortions, sex slavery, and substandard pay and working conditions. The Mariana Islands were one of Abramoff’s biggest clients, paying him over $9 million during the course of their relationship. Abramoff charged his client thousands of dollars for “discussions” with Norquist and Americans for Tax Reform staffers.

Lobbying Activity | Immigration | Labor | Women’s Rights
2006-01--01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 2003, Norquist was quoted in the Denver Post as saying, "Bipartisanship is another name for date rape."

Women’s Rights
2003-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a February 2001 article for The American Spectator, Norquist wrote, “[President George W.] Bush now has the incentive to level the playing field by stripping the Democrats of their ill-gotten gains. To do that he'll have to shake the Democrats' five pillars.” Norquist identified these five pillars as; “labor unions,” “taxpayer funded lobbies,” “greedy trial lawyers,” Big City political machines,” and “voter fraud.” Labor unions, Norquist explained, use money from government contracts and give “political kickbacks to Democrats.” He also complained that “funding earmarked to promote hunting and outdoor sports has been redirected to animal rights groups.” Trial lawyers need to be targeted, Norquist explained, because “in some states trial lawyers give more to Democrats than union leaders do.” Norquist proposed tort reform, which would deprive trial lawyers of “billions of dollars from American consumers,” as a solution. Norquist asserted that mayors and precinct workers who handle federal funds to help the poor comprise a Democratic machine to “deliver the votes in Detroit, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and St. Louis.” Finally, Norquist stated, “The whole 36-day circus in Florida was designed to give the local politicians in Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties a chance to manufacture or find enough Gore votes, or lose or damage enough Bush votes, to overcome Bush's margin. Although the effort failed, it is estimated that 5,000 felons, mostly Democrats, voted illegally in Florida, and we may never know how many illegal aliens voted.” He is referring to the voter recount in Florida during the 2000 presidential election. The results of that recount were controversial and several irregularities are thought to have favored George W. Bush, including, the "butterfly ballot," which produced an unexpectedly large number of votes for third-party candidate Patrick Buchanan, and a purge of over 54,000 citizens from the Florida voting rolls, of whom 54% were African-Americans.

Conspiracy Theory | Republican Party (GOP) | Animal Rights | Labor | Race | Voting Rights
2001/02

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In a September 16, 1998 op-ed for the Washington Times, Norquist praised the casino gambling operations of the Mississippi Choctaw tribe, writing that Choctaw Chief Philip Martin “has shown that the Enterprise Zone model of economic development, with greatly reduced tax and regulatory burdens and local control, can work incredibly well in the most difficult of circumstances.” Between 1995 and 2002, the Mississippi Choctaw tribe donated $1.5 million to Grover Norquist’s anti-tax Americans for Tax Reform organization.

Lobbying Activity |
1998-09-16

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 1998, Norquist directed his Americans for Tax Reform Organization to pump money into an anti-labor ballot initiative in California
that sought to limit the influence of labor unions under the guise of “paycheck protection.” Norquist’s told supporters of the “paycheck protection” ballot initiative that he could raise $10 million for their cause, but failed to deliver. The AFL-CIO said Norquist was responsible for “producing and disseminating a resource and strategy guide for introducing anti-worker state ballot initiatives and legislation” across the country.

Labor
1998-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Labor
1997-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 1997, Norquist founded Janus-Merritt Strategies, a lobbying firm, along with David Safavian. Safavian was later convicted on felony obstruction of justice charges in relation to the Jack Abramoff lobbying scandal. The Janus-Merritt clientele included:

Fox News | Lobbying Activity | Political Corruption | Repressive Regimes | Republican Party (GOP) | The Environment | Poverty
1997-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Norquist was a vocal supporter of California's Proposition 209 in 1996, a ballot measure that eliminated affirmative action programs. He has called affirmative action “government racism” and urged Republicans to fight affirmative action “without compromise.” In 1997, Norquist helped found the American Civil Rights Institute, an organization dedicated to repealing affirmative action programs nationwide.

Lobbying Activity | Race
1996-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 1995, in the wake of the Republican takeover of the U.S. House of Representatives, Norquist, then- House Majority Whip Tom DeLay (who has since been convicted of money laundering), and Republican lobbyist Jack Abramoff founded The K Street Project. The goal of the project was to facilitate the hiring of Republicans at top lobbying firms and then reward the firms by offering access to influential GOP officials. The explicit “pay-to-play” nature of the project is now illegal, however, in 2003 Republican lobbyists held 33 of the 36 top-level lobbying positions in Washington. During the midst of the project, Norquist told journalist Elizabeth Drew, “There should be as many Democrats working on K Street representing corporate America as there are Republicans working in organized labor—and that number is close to zero.” Norquist credited Abramoff—who was later convicted of mail fraud and conspiracy charges in a far-reaching political scandal—with “instigating the whole [K Street] project.”

Lobbying Activity | Political Corruption | Republican Party (GOP) | Labor
1995-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 1995, Norquist was hired by communist strongman France-Albert René—who ruled Seychelles from 1977 to 2004—to lobby before Congress. Asked how he could have a communist ruler who had been accused of human rights abuses as a client, Norquist stated that René (who took control of Seychelles in 1977 after a coup against the ruling Seychelles Democratic Party) was “a guy who preferred to not have elections for a number of years,” and said of René’s human rights record, “there were one or two people who people were suspected done in. But it was always fairly murky.” René was accused of employing systematic torture and other human rights abuses against political opponents, and in 1985 opposition leader Gérard Hoarau was assassinated in London. While René denied involvement in the assassination, he admitted to bugging Hoarau’s telephone and to listening in on Hoarau’s last phone call. During the phone call Hoarau changed the time of a doctor’s appointment. He then left his home and was assassinated while standing on his doorstep. British police later identified the murder weapon as the same type of gun used by the Seychelles police.

Lobbying Activity | Repressive Regimes | Freedom of Speech
1995-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Lobbying Activity | Political Corruption | Republican Party (GOP) |
1995-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

Repressive Regimes | Race | Women’s Rights
1995-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

According to The Nation magazine, “During the second half of the 1980s, Norquist detoured from his tax work to engage in a series of safaris to far-off battlegrounds in support of anti-Soviet guerrilla armies, visiting war zones from the Pakistan-Afghanistan border to southern Africa. Working alongside Col. Oliver North's freelance support network for the Nicaraguan contras and other Reagan Doctrine-allied insurgencies, Norquist promoted U.S. support for groups like Mozambique's RENAMO and Jonas Savimbi's UNITA in Angola, both of which were backed by South Africa's apartheid regime (Norquist represented UNITA as a registered lobbyist in the early 1990s).” In June 1985, Norquist—with the help of (now convicted) Republican lobbyist Jack Abramoff—organized a “conference of worldwide insurgent leaders called the Democracy International.” The conference was located in Angolan territory held by UNITA. Attendees included mujahedeen from Afghanistan.

Norquist made regular visits to UNITA controlled territory during the 1980s. Although now a legitimate political party in Angola, the United States Department of Homeland Security has characterized UNITA from 1998 until the killing of Savimbi in 2002 by Angolan government forces as a terrorist organization. During this time period, Human Rights Watch described UNITA as “a rebel group led by Jonas Savimbi, [that] killed, abducted, and terrorized civilians with impunity.” The United States Institute of Peace wrote, “Savimbi is indeed responsible for a litany of crimes against humanity.” UNITA employed child soldiers throughout the Angolan Civil War, including during the time that Norquist was a registered lobbyist for the organization. Norquist ties to Savimbi were close, and he admitted to ghostwriting a number of op-eds for Savimbi during the 1980s promoting UNITA’s war against Soviet-backed MPLA. He even wore a UNITA issued uniform while visiting Angola, but admitting to taking it off when fighting broke out.

Norquist also supported RENAMO, an insurgent group accused of killing over 1,000,000 civilians in Mozambique. After Norquist visited RENAMO-held territory in 1987, he wrote a report praising RENAMO for calling for free elections and the free practice of religion, while falsely accusing RENAMO’s opponents of anti-Semitism. Norquist even met with President Ronald Reagan and urged him to support RENAMO, but the administration declined to aid RENAMO’s cause because of the group’s human rights record.

Lobbying Activity | Repressive Regimes | Republican Party (GOP) |
1985-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In July 1985, Norquist attended a conference hosted by the National Student Federation (NSF) in Johannesburg, South Africa. The NSF supported apartheid in South Africa and was allied with the pro-apartheid South African Defense Force (SADF). The SADF enforced apartheid policies and fought in the Angolan Bush War to preserve discriminatory treatment of Africans.

Repressive Regimes | Race
1985-01-01

Grover Norquist (Board Member)

In 1981, Norquist served as campaign manager for corrupt lobbyist Jack Abramoff’s successful campaign to become chairman of the National College Republicans.

Lobbying Activity | Education
1981
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